My research focuses on the history of voluntarism with special attention to American society. Some of the most widely read sociology of all time deals with the dialectic of over and under-socialization. From anomie to the Mass Man, and the village to the Metropolis, this tension is both generative and inescapable. My research approaches this tension from the perspective of the volition and will as sacred. More narrowly, it looks at friendship as an ideal typical volitional relationship in American history.